
yes 
no 
Design and conduct 
Is the sample defined? 
2 
0 
Are exclusions specified? 
2 
0 
Are known risk factors recorded? 
3 
0 
Are therapeutic regimens defined? 
5 
0 
Is the experimental regimen appropriate? 
5 
0 
Is the control regimen appropriate? 
5 
0 
Were appropriate investigations carried out? 
2 
0 
Are endpoints defined? 
5 
0 
Are endpoints appropriate? 
5 
0 
Have numbers required been calculated? 
2 
0 
Was patient consent sought? 
1 
0 
Was the randomization blind? 
3 
0 
Was the assessment blind? 
4 
0 
Were additional treatments recorded? 
4 
0 
Were side effects recorded? 
2 
0 

Analysis 
Withdrawals: 


Are they listed? 
3 
0 
Is their fate recorded? 
4 
0 
Are there fewer than 10%? 
4 
0 
Is there a comparability table? 
3 
0 
Are risk factors stratified? 
3 
0 
Is the statistical analysis of proportions correct ? 
3 
0 
Is the statistical analysis of numbers correct? 
3 
0 
Are confidence intervals reported? 
2 
0 
Are values of both test statistics and probability given? 
1 
0 
In negative trials, is the type II error considered? 
4 
0 

Presentation 
Is the title accurate? 
2 
0 
Is the abstract accurate and helpful? 
3 
0 
Are the methods reproducible? 
3 
0 
Are the sections clearcut? 
2 
0 
Can the raw data be discerned? 
2 
0 
Are the results credible? 
3 
0 
Do the results justify the conclusions? 
3 
0 
Are the references correct? 
2 
0 